ORGANIZED BY:

WORKSHOP DETAILS

Title: The Gulf Post-Syrian-Crisis Political Architecture and the Roles of the External Actors: the USA, Russia and China

Workshop Directors:
Prof. Alexey Vasiliev
Honorary President
Institute for African Studies of the
Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS)
Member of RAS
Russia

Email: dir@inafr.ru
        
Dr. Dania Koleilat Khatib
Executive Director
Al Istishari Al Strategy for Economic and Future Studies
United Arab Emirates

Email: dania.koleilat.khatib@gmail.com
        

Abstract

In the crisis-ridden Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region the contemporary situation, created as a result of the “Arab spring” as well as the Syrian and Iraqi crises, is approaching a new phase. The issue of the future socio-political structure of Syria and Iraq as well as of the influence of events therein on the situation in the Gulf region has come to the forefront. Under the circumstances the role of so significant external players as the USA, Russia and China can hardly be overrated. At the same time, their power and importance are changing. The workshop looks at the Arab Spring namely at the war in Syria and the unrest in Iraq and examines the roles of China the US and Russia as well as the roles of regional players namely Arab Gulf countries and Iran. The workshop also sees how those disturbances in Iraq and Syria have inflicted a new pattern of behaviour on Arab Gulf countries as well as Iran. The Arab Spring has allowed Iran to take a more proactive role and to engage engaging with the Shia communities in the Arab world. On the other hand amid American retrenchment, Arab Gulf countries adopted a more assertive foreign policy while trying to forge alliances with new international players such as Russia. The workshop also seeks to analyse and compare the foreign relations patterns of the three mentioned powers (USA, Russia and China) with the Gulf Co-operation Council (GCC) countries, Iraq, Syria and Iran by framing these relations against shifting global dynamics as well as the ongoing regional conflicts. Overall, the workshop will contribute to critically discussing works on foreign policy analysis by filling the gap in the literature on the contemporary foreign relations of the Gulf countries and providing new insights into a pivotal topic for the future of the MENA region and the GCC countries in particular.

 

 

Description and Rationale

 

In the crisis-ridden MENA region the contemporary situation, created as a result of the “Arab spring” as well as the Syrian and Iraqi crises, is approaching a new phase. The issue of the future socio-political structure of Syria and Iraq as well as of the influence of events therein on the situation in the Gulf region has come to the forefront. Under the circumstances, some of the most significant external players in the region – the USA, Russia and China – together with the European Union (EU), Great Britain and others are maintaining very important roles, though their power and ranking are shifting.

 

USA

 

Lately the USA guarded the tradition of being the principal external force in Gulf, though this role is challenged by Iran. The US positions are based on their economic influence, traditional links with the GCC states, solid military presence (large bases in Bahrain, Qatar, etc.) together with the willingness to deploy their armed forces for the protection of the US interests as perceived by Washington.

 

At the same time the future US role in the Gulf region is questionable. First of all, the centre of American military-political interests has shifted to the Pacific region, where the growing Chinese power has already challenged the predominance of the USA over the Far East and the South-East Asia. Secondly, due to the shale revolution the USA is not only losing interest in the oil supplies from the Gulf region to a great extent, but is itself becoming a big exporter of hydrocarbons and thus competitor with the GCC members in the world energy markets. However, even under these circumstances it is next to impossible to suppose that the USA may become altogether disinterested in the Gulf regional problems. The US failure in Iraq, and the problems that emerged from this failure have killed the American public, as well political elite appetite for active engagement in the region.

 The American invasion in Iraq has sparked the Sunni Shia clashes that intensified with the outbreak of the Arab Spring. The sectarian tension creates another factor complicating the stabilisation of the region. This conflict initiated by the American invasion to Iraq has snowballed and resulted in a new wave of international terrorism that threatens the West. The Islamic State represents its manifestation. Despite this fact and despite American retrenchment, any national and regional programs of socio-economic development, especially those introducing various innovations in this field, anticipate very active participation of American investments, knowledge, expertise, and specialists as prerequisites to their success.

 

Another sudden, unpredictable element is the decision of president Trump’s administration to question the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA, known commonly as Iran nuclear deal), which from the Russian, European and some other points of view is among the most important factors of the future security in the Gulf as well as in the MENA. On the other hand the GCC states do not see the nuclear deal as a mean to achieve stability. They see the deal as empowering Iran and giving her financial means to promote her ideological project in the region. According to GCC members, the JCPOA did not have any political clauses, and did not put any restraints on Iran’s proactive behaviour in exchange for normalisation.

 

Russia

 

The present economic capacities of Russia do not allow it to be a primary player in the Gulf region. Notwithstanding these drawbacks the Russian Federation remains quite competitive in some of modern technological fields, and is capable to take part e.g. in the development of atomic energy electrical generation plants in Saudi Arabia and other Arab states of the Gulf. Similar Russian bilateral co-operation with Iran in mutual atomic energy projects has reached a rather advanced level already. The Russian Federation is also highly interested in attracting foreign investments into its economy, including investments from the Gulf States. There are also some positive examples in this field, e.g. mutual projects with Qatar. 

 

Despite limited economic capacities Russian reinforcement in the MENA region as a power, which has been ready to deploy its military forces to defend its interests (as perceived by Moscow) allows the countries of the region to use the Russian Federation as a symbolic alternative to the (undeniable) American leadership. During the Obama years that were seen as a period of American retrenchment, the Arab Gulf looked at Russia for partnerships. This was embodied by the trade deals as well the UAE Crown Prince visits to Russia. In the limited framework of exclusively military matters, the Russian Federation is aspiring to be among the suppliers of weapons and military equipment for the Gulf States.

 

Russia direct military involvement in MENA has been confined to Syria where the Russian military has managed to play a really decisive role of a game changer, explicitly supporting president Basher Al Assad. The question is whether the successful intervention in Syria constitutes a prelude for more active Russian involvement elsewhere in the region?

 

The Russian Federation has showed motivation to develop co-operation with the countries of the region in the mutual fight against international terrorism. Yet from the GCC states’ point of view the Russian Iranian ties are a main point of contention for the Gulf. However, given the pragmatic outlook the Gulf countries adopt they are trying to warm up to the new regional player. In the perspective of the new important Role Russia plays in the region, the workshop examines the potential of future cooperation between Arab Gulf States and the Russian Federation.

 

China

 

China is very interested in the supplies of hydrocarbons from the Gulf region, and is aiming at “depoliticised” co-operation with the countries of the Gulf. But simultaneously the very scope of Chinese economic exchanges with the states in the region as well as of Chinese participation in the mutual development projects is proving the increasing weight of China and its matter of fact competition (if not rivalry) with the USA, EU, Great Britain, and other Western countries. Constant declarations about “depoliticised” relationships have not got in the way of supplying weapons, e.g. missile complexes to Saudi Arabia.

 

 

Anticipated Participants

 

Possible issues to be addressed in the workshop include the following:

 

  I. General influence of the new political situation in the Gulf on the policies of regional states.

 

 II. USA

 

  • 1) Traditions of American-Arab co-operation (including education, personal contacts);
  • 2) US foreign trade relations with the Gulf states and bi-directional capital flows;
  • 3) New role of “oil and natural gas” factor;
  • 4) Emerging shift of the centre of gravity in American foreign policy towards the Pacific region;
  • 5) Uncertainty caused by the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (Iran nuclear deal).
  • 6) The US policy in Syria from Obama to Trump
  •  

III. Russian Federation

 

  • 1) The quest of Russian Federation to gain a firm foothold in the Middle East as a military actor;
  • 2) Economic drawbacks of Russia balanced partly by its capacities to co-operate with the Gulf in the fields of atomic energy, commercial utilization of space, etc.;
  • 3) Russian policy of non-interference;
  • 4) Development of bi-lateral relations of Russia with the Gulf states;
  • 5) Antiterrorist co-operation and alliances of Russia in the MENA;
  • 6) Co-operation between Russia and OPEC
  • 7) Russian Gulf relation since the Arab Spring
  •  

IV. China

 

  • 1) The importance of MENA hydrocarbon resources for China;
  • 2) MENA as a significant market for Chinese goods;
  • 3) The slogan to “depoliticise” links in the framework of “Overseas Silk Way”;
  • 4) The matter of fact Chinese competition with the USA, India, Russia and other countries outside the MENA.
  •  

 V. The views from Arab states on the roles of the USA, Russian Federation and China in region.

 

VI. The views from Iran on the roles of the USA, Russian Federation and China in region.

 

VII. The role of the Gulf in the Syrian crisis

 

VIII. The role of Iran in the Syrian crisis

 

VIII. The Arab Gulf new partnerships amid American retrenchment

 

Workshop Director Profiles

 

Prof. Alexey Vasiliev is Honorary President of the Institute for African Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) ( since 2015), Member of RAS (elected in 2011), professor (since 1991), chair of Arab and African studies of the Russian University of Peoples’ friendship (since 2015) in Moscow, editor-in-chief of Asia and Africa Today magazine (since 1998),  in Moscow, member of the Council on foreign policy of the Foreign Ministry of the RF, member of the Scientific Council of the Security Council of the Russian Federation, member of the Imperial Orthodox Palestinian Society. He was Special representative of the President of the Russian Federation for relations with leaders of African states (2006-2011). A.Vasiliev has made an important contribution to the studies of the USSR/Russia policy in the Middle East, as well as international relations in this region with due account of the “oil factor”, the “Arab Spring” and the “Arab winter”.

 

Prof. Vasiliev speaks Arabic fluently and has travelled extensively to the Middle East and North Africa regions. His recent publications include “Russian Policy in the Middle East: from Lenin to Putin” (in Russian – 2017, to appear shortly in English (Routlege), Arabic, Chinese); “History of Saudi Arabia” (in Russian, English, Arabic); “King Faisal of Saudi Arabia: Personality, Faith and Times” (in Russian, English and Arabic); “Egypt and the Egyptians” (in Russian and Arabic); “The Gulf in the Epicenter of the Storm” (Russian); “Africa and Challenges of the 21th Century” (Russian).

 

Dr. Dania Koleilat Khatib is the Executive Director for Al Istishari Al Strategy Center for Economic and Future Studies, an independent Abu Dhabi based think tank. Her specialty is US-Arab relations with a special focus on lobbying. Dr. Khatib research also spans media biases, sectarianism, extremism and governance. Dr. Khatib worked as a marketing consultant and director, PR account manager and also in the banking industry.

 

She authored a book on the Arab lobby and the factors for success and for failure. Her book is published by Routledge UK.The Arabic version is published by the Center of Arab Unity for Studies in Beirut. She is a regular publisher on, namely, on the US relation with the Arab Gulf in several regional newspapers: Annahar Lebanon, Riyadh KSA-Al khaleej UAE-Al Ahram Egypt and Gulf News UAE- She is a weekly columnist in the Bahraini newspaper Al Watan. Dania is a regular on a series of Middle Eastern TV stations. Dr.Khatib has participated and spoken in numerous workshops and conferences. She was also a co-director in 2017 GRM. She is a member of the Arab Council of Social Studies. Dania holds a PhD in Politics from the University of Exeter and both an MA and a BA in Business Administration from the American University in Beirut.

 

Selected Readings

 

Volumes:

 

ROBERT MASON (ed.). Reassessing Order and Disorder in the Middle East: Regional Imbalance or Disintegration? (Rowman & Littlefield, 2017, ISBN 144226490X, 9781442264908)

 

CHOMSKY, N. & ACHCAR, G. Perilous Power: the Middle East and US Foreign Policy: Dialogues on Terror, Democracy, War, and Justice. (Penguin UK, 2007)

 

 

Articles:

 

Mishaal al Gergawi, “China Is Eyeballing a Major Strategic Investment in Saudi Arabia’s Oil. Washington may have invented the petrodollar system, but Beijing is looking toward the future”

Foreign Policy, October 26, 2017

http://foreignpolicy.com/2017/10/26/china-is-eyeballing-a-major-strategic-investment-in-saudi-arabias-oil/

 

Al-Monitor Staff, “Russian 'czar' back in Tehran”

Al-Monitor, November 1, 2017

http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2017/11/iran-putin-czar-tehran-visit-summit-azerbaijan-russia.html#ixzz4zfdXPhtQ

 

Al-Monitor Staff, “Iran, EU hold third round of high-level talks”

Al-Monitor, November 21, 2017

http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2017/11/iran-eu-high-level-dialogue-schmid-araghchi-jcpoa-deal.html#ixzz4zf2bYSe1

 

Al-Monitor Staff, “Iranian media: Sochi summit step toward ‘new Middle East’”

Al-Monitor, November 22, 2017

http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2017/11/iran-russia-sochi-summit-putin-rouhani-erdogan-syria-talks.html#ixzz4zZLt3f66

 

Al-Monitor Staff, “IRGC commander rules out war between Iran, US”

Al-Monitor, October 31, 2017

http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2017/10/iran-irgc-jafari-bagheri-jcpoa-sanctions-missiles-exit.html#ixzz4zfd8Cqxa

 

T. Arango, “Allawi accuses Iran of stopping national reconciliation”

Al Khaleej, April 5, 2015

 

Ali Bakeer, “Turkey, Iran, Russia: Trilateral distrust in Syria”

Al-Monitor, November 20, 2017

http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2017/11/turkey-iran-russia-trilateral-distrust-in-syria.html#ixzz4zfGgOSG3

 

Sergey Balmasov, “Russia keeps eye on Kurdish oil contracts, referendum”

Al-Monitor, September 27, 2017

http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2017/09/russia-iraq-kurdistan-referendum-oil-contracts-rosneft.html#ixzz4zfHiz0Uv

 

Yury Barmin, “Kurdish referendum a double-edged sword for Russia”

Al-Monitor, September 29, 2017

http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2017/09/iraq-kurdistan-referendum-double-edged-sword-russia-baghdad.html#ixzz4zfMXtNmo

 

A. Beattie, “The Cost of Shale Oil Versus Conventional Oil”

Investopedia, 2015

http://www.investopedia.com/articles/active-trading/051215/cost-shale-oil-versus-conventional-oil.asp#ixzz49SPQ6wOd

 

D. Blair, “How Assad helped the rise of his 'foe' Isil”

The Telgraph, August 22, 2014

 

C.M. Blanchard, “Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations”

Congressional Research Service, 2016

 

Javier Blas, “Putin Crowns Himself OPEC King”

Bloomberg Businessweek, November 24, 2017

https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2017-11-24/putin-crowns-himself-opec-king

 

Marianna Belenkaya, “Business as usual as Iraq's foreign minister visits Moscow”

Al-Monitor, October 26, 2017

http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2017/10/iraq-foreign-minister-jaafari-visit-moscow-kurdistan.html#ixzz4zfPaJAVK

 

Mahmut Bozarslan, “Iran, Turkey have own plans for Iraq's strategic Sinjar”

Al-Monitor, November 15, 2017

http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2017/11/turkey-iraq-iran-why-so-interested-in-sinjar-1.html#ixzz4zZdEFesy

 

Joseph Braude and Tyler Jiang, “Why China and Saudi Arabia Are Building Bases in Djibouti. China and Saudi Arabia are building military bases next door to US AFRICOM in Djibouti—and bringing the consequences of American withdrawal from the region into stark relief”

HuffPost. The World Post, --

https://www.huffingtonpost.com/joseph-braude/why-china-and-saudi-arabi_b_12194702.html

 

Giorgio Cafiero, “Iran, Turkey divide Saudi-led bloc”

Al-Monitor, November 15, 2017

http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2017/11/iran-turkey-divide-saudi-uae-bloc-egypt-hezbollah.html#ixzz4zfXfnFjt

 

Giorgio Cafiero, “How new joint US-GCC sanctions will impact Qatar crisis”

Al-Monitor, October 30, 2017

http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2017/10/us-saudi-arabia-gcc-qatar-sanctions-yemen-gulf-crisis-impact.html#ixzz4zfW5DXRw

 

Giorgio Cafiero, “Iran’s role in Qatar’s new foreign policy”

Al-Monitor, August 30, 2017

http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2017/08/iran-role-qatar-new-foreign-policy-gcc-dispute-saudi-arabia.html#ixzz4zfhgIZWh

 

Giorgio Cafiero, “Can UAE be a bridge between US, Sudan?”

Al-Monitor, October 8, 2017

http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2017/10/uae-bridge-sudan-us-.html#ixzz4zfjyWpei

 

J. Cole, “Mystery: Russia & Hizbullah begin withdrawal from Syria”

Informed Comment, 2016

 

M. David, “John Kerry reveals Arab countries have offered to pay America to carry out full scale invasion of Syria”

Dailymail, 2013

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2411806/Offer-table-Arab-countries-pay-scale-U-S-invasion-Syria-says-Secretary-State-John-Kerry.html.

 

Igor Delanoe, “Paris, Moscow agendas in Mideast are different but compatible”

Al-Monitor, September 21, 2017

http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2017/09/france-russia-approach-libya-diplomacy-syria-iran.html#ixzz4zfLcgA17

 

Michael P. Dempsey, “The Caliphate Is Destroyed, but the Islamic State Lives On. Why the United States can’t be complacent about undermining the remnants of the terrorist group”, Foreign Policy, November 22, 2017

http://foreignpolicy.com/2017/11/22/the-caliphate-is-destroyed-but-the-islamic-state-lives-on/

 

Jack Detsch, “Kurdish crisis imperils US anti-terror fight in Syria”

Al-Monitor, October 30, 2017

http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2017/10/kurdish-crisis-krg-border-crossing-us-fight-islamic-state.html#ixzz4zffi16fS

 

Jack Detsch, “Pentagon reports troop surge in Middle East”

Al-Monitor, November 21, 2017

http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2017/11/pentagon-troop-surge-syria-middle-east.html#ixzz4zfe7arqx

 

James M. Dorsey, “Why Saudi-UAE campaign against Qatar and Iran puts China in a bind. Pressuring China to take sides, the boycott move complicates its efforts to tiptoe through the minefield of Middle Eastern rivalries by maintaining good relations with all parties”

South China Morning Post, June 12, 2017

http://www.scmp.com/week-asia/geopolitics/article/2096972/why-saudi-uae-campaign-against-qatar-and-iran-puts-china-bind

 

James M. Dorsey, “The US-Saudi plot for Iran that spells trouble for China’s new Silk Road. Riyadh may already have the building blocks for a proxy war in Balochistan, a key part of Beijing’s Belt and Road Initiative”

South China Morning Post, May 27, 2017

http://www.scmp.com/week-asia/geopolitics/article/2095734/us-saudi-plot-iran-spells-trouble-chinas-new-silk-road

 

Pepe Escobar, “Trump will try to smash the China-Russia-Iran triangle ... here’s why he will fail. The hand of Henry Kissinger suggests US foreign policy will use a ‘divide and rule’ strategy with Beijing, Moscow and Tehran”

South China Morning Post, May 1, 2017

http://www.scmp.com/week-asia/opinion/article/2064005/trump-will-try-smash-china-russia-iran-triangle-heres-why-he-will

 

A. W. A. P. Ewing, “Carter's unwelcome news: Only 60 Syrian rebels fit for training” Politico, 2015

 

R. Fisk, “Iran shifting from pariah to possible future policeman of Gulf”

Independent, November 23, 2014

 

Friedman Interview with Obama, “The strength of the Iran deal”

Times N. Y., 2015

 

Charlotte Gao, “Closer Ties: China And Saudi Arabia Sign $70 Billion in New Deals. China says its bilateral relations with Saudi Arabia have entered a new era”

The Diplomat, August 27, 2017

https://thediplomat.com/2017/08/closer-ties-china-and-saudi-arabia-sign-70-billion-in-new-deals/

 

M.A. Hakeem, “Saudi Arabia's anti-terrorism campaign to target students”

Gulf News, November 22, 2006.

 

Bryant Harris, “Congress moves bill jeopardizing Iran nuclear deal”

Al-Monitor, November 14, 2017

http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2017/11/congress-move-bill-jeopardize-iran-nuclear-deal.html#ixzz4zfew5Cyh

 

Bryant Harris, “Congress abandons constraints on Kurdish aid”

Al-Monitor, November 10, 2017

http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2017/11/congress-kurdish-aid-constraints-ndaa.html#ixzz4zfQeP2su

 

Ali Hashem, “Iran unlikely to sit idle as US targets Hezbollah, PMU”

Al-Monitor, November 1, 2017

http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2017/11/iran-us-strategic-depth-pmu-hezbollah-sanctions.html#ixzz4zfge171v

 

Ali Hashem, “Iran taking Saudi rhetoric, actions seriously”

Al-Monitor, November 10, 2017

http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2017/11/lebanon-hariri-resignation-hezbollah-saudi-iran-clash.html#ixzz4zfiUnkEE

 

Julia Hollingsworth, “Why Qatar matters to China, in spite of Gulf isolation. The Qatar-China link goes deeper than the New Silk Road, raising broader trade and investment implications in wake of big Gulf diplomatic breakdown”

South China Morning Post, June 12, 2017

http://www.scmp.com/news/china/diplomacy-defence/article/2097206/why-qatar-matters-china-spite-gulf-isolation

 

N. Hopkins, “Inside Iraq: 'We had to deal with people who had blood on their hands'” The Guardian, July 16, 2012

 

Kristin Huang, “Which side will China pick in Gulf row? Qatar matters, but so does Saudi Arabia”

South China Morning Post, June 12, 2017

http://www.scmp.com/news/china/diplomacy-defence/article/2097231/which-side-will-china-pick-gulf-row-qatar-matters-so

 

Cary Huang, “How the Qatar crisis could turn into a disaster for Beijing. Staying engaged in the Middle East is in China’s long-term economic interests, but competing with the US for influence may be a slippery slope towards picking sides in potential armed conflicts”

South China Morning Post, July 2, 2017

http://www.scmp.com/week-asia/opinion/article/2098337/how-qatar-crisis-could-turn-disaster-beijing

 

Saeid Jafari, “Saudi Arabia seeks to turn back clock on Iran”

Al-Monitor, November 20, 2017

http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2017/11/iran-lebanon-saudi-velayati-reaction-hezbollah-region.html#ixzz4zfYftAjF

 

Wang Jin, “China and Saudi Arabia: A New Alliance? China-Saudi Arabia ties are seeing more political-military cooperation, but oil continues to dominate”

The Diplomat, September 02, 2016

https://thediplomat.com/2016/09/china-and-saudi-arabia-a-new-alliance/

 

M. Johnston, “U.S. Shale Oil Production: The Rise and Fall”

Investopedia, 2015

 

Bijan Khajehpour, “Iranian banks slowly reconnect to the world”

Al-Monitor, October 26, 2017

http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2017/10/iran-financing-european-banks-japan-china-sanctions.html#ixzz4zfbzCQAk

 

Bijan Khajehpour, “Iran's path to becoming an LNG exporter”

Al-Monitor, November 14, 2017

http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2017/11/iran-energy-sector-lng-supply-export-resumption.html#ixzz4zfZkfTVD

 

S. Kinzer, “The United States Shouldn’t Choose Saudi Arabia Over Iran”

Politico, 2016

 

T. Luck, “To counter Iranian rival, Saudi Arabia steps up Washington lobbying” Christian Science Monitor, February 8, 2016

 

Anton Mardasov, “Challenges still stalk Syrian peace efforts”

Al-Monitor, October 3, 2017

http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2017/10/syria-blueprint-putin-erdogan-meeting-turkey-russia.html#ixzz4zfK4tRlc

 

Anton Mardasov, “Latest Syria peace talks solidify final de-escalation zone”

Al-Monitor, September 22, 2017

http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2017/09/syria-peace-astana-zones-opposition-kurds-assad-russia.html#ixzz4zfDh4Qpn

 

Patrick Mendis, “How Donald Trump betrayed American values and Jeffersonian legacy with trip to Saudi Arabia. Patrick Mendis says the transactional president is undermining US democratic ideals with his economic determinism, as seen in his closeness to the Saudi kingdom, which he previously condemned as a top funder of terrorism”

South China Morning Post, 01 June, 2017

http://www.scmp.com/comment/insight-opinion/article/2096469/how-donald-trump-betrayed-american-values-and-jeffersonian

 

Sam Meredith, “China will 'compel' Saudi Arabia to trade oil in yuan — and that's going to affect the US dollar”

CNBC, October 11, 2017

https://www.cnbc.com/2017/10/11/china-will-compel-saudi-arabia-to-trade-oil-in-yuan--and-thats-going-to-affect-the-us-dollar.html

 

Seyed Hossein Mousavian, “The wrong way to address Iran’s missile program”

Al-Monitor, November 21, 2017

http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2017/11/iran-missile-program-addressing-us-europe-region.html#ixzz4zZObGbmh

 

H. Mousavian, “14 Reasons why Saudi Arabia is a failed Mideast Power”

Huffington Post

 

Wang Mouzhou, “What the Saudi Shake up Means for China. The success or failure of Saudi Arabia’s reform campaign will have huge ramifications for China”

The Diplomat, November 09, 2017

https://thediplomat.com/2017/11/what-the-saudi-shake-up-means-for-china/

 

S. V. R. Nasr, “The Shia revival: how conflicts within Islam will shape the future”

New York, Norton, 2007.

 

Teddy Ng and Kristin Huang, “China and Iran carry out naval exercise near Strait of Hormuz as US holds drill with Qatar”

South China Morning Post, June 19, 2017

http://www.scmp.com/news/china/diplomacy-defence/article/2098898/china-and-iran-carry-out-naval-exercise-near-strait

 

Olgu OkumuĊŸ, “Kurdish crisis could benefit Iran-Turkey-Russia energy deal”

Al-Monitor, October 30, 2017

http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2017/10/turkey-iran-russia-energy-deal-emerges-from-crisis.html

 

Tsvetana Paraskova, “OPEC, Russia Said To Announce Oil Pact Extension On Nov 30”

Oilprice, Nov 24, 2017

https://oilprice.com/Latest-Energy-News/World-News/OPEC-Russia-Said-To-Announce-Oil-Pact-Extension-On-Nov-30.html

 

Tsvetana Paraskova, “China’s Crude Oil Production Falls 8% Year Over Year”

Oilprice, Mar 16, 2017

https://oilprice.com/Energy/Energy-General/Chinas-Crude-Oil-Production-Falls-8-Year-Over-Year.html

 

Bruce Riedel, “King Salman goes to Russia”

Al-Monitor, October 4, 2017

https://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2017/10/king-salman-saudi-arabia-visit-russia-symbolism-iran-qatar.html

 

Laura Rozen, “Has Kushner given Riyadh carte blanche?”

Al-Monitor, November 20, 2017

https://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2017/11/jared-kushner-saudi-arabia-carte-blanche-destablize-region.html

 

Kirill Semenov, “Saudis could seek Russian bailout in Yemen”

Al-Monitor, October 9, 2017

http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2017/10/saudi-arabia-bail-out-yemen-conflict-mediation.html#ixzz4zf3h335W

 

Kirill Semenov, “Russia, Oman size each other up as potential Mideast allies”

Al-Monitor, November 8, 2017

http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2017/11/russia-oman-policies-middle-east-technical-economic.html#ixzz4zZXvnisZ

 

E. Sky, “How Obama Abandoned Iraq”

Slate.com, 2015 http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/foreigners/2015/04/emma_sky_on_america_s_failure_in_iraq_the_rise_of_isis_and_the_fall_of_iraq.html.

 

Irina Slav, “Forget OPEC, Putin Is Calling The Shots in Global Oil”

Oilprice, Nov 28, 2017

https://oilprice.com/Geopolitics/Europe/Forget-OPEC-Putin-Is-Calling-The-Shots-In-Global-Oil.html

 

Irina Slav, “China Just Became The World’s Top Oil Importer”

Oilprice, April 13, 2017

https://oilprice.com/Latest-Energy-News/World-News/China-Just-Became-The-Worlds-Top-Oil-Importer.html

 

L. Sly, “David Petraeus: What has happened in Iraq is a tragedy”

Gulf News, April 8, 2014

 

Maxim A. Suchkov, “Putin, Trump follow winding path to latest Syria agreement”

Al-Monitor, November 13, 2017

http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2017/11/putin-trump-russia-path-syria-agreement.html#ixzz4zZX3lePG

 

Maxim A. Suchkov, “Iran’s Khamenei has three main messages for Putin at summit”

Al-Monitor, November 3, 2017

http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2017/11/iran-khamenei-messages-russia-putin-summit-syria.html#ixzz4zfSjOHB9

 

Maxim A. Suchkov, “Huntsman heads to Russia to tackle Mideast, China”

Al-Monitor, October 11, 2017

http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2017/10/huntsman-ambassador-russia-tackle-mideast-china-syria.html#ixzz4zZfMLhmm

 

Maxim A. Suchkov, “Assad makes last-minute trip to Russia before trilateral summit”

Al-Monitor, November 21, 2017

http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2017/11/syria-assad-snap-visit-moscow-sochi-putin.html#ixzz4zfExlMQz

 

Fehim Tastekin, “Putin-Trump statement on Syria contradicts Erdogan’s calculations”

Al-Monitor, November 15, 2017

http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2017/11/turkey-syria-usa-russia-harmony-contradicts-erdogan-plans.html#ixzz4zfUGob9a

 

I. B. A. S. Tisdall, “Saudi Arabia urges US attack on Iran to stop nuclear programme” The Guardian, November 28, 2010 (20.54 GMT)

 

S. Tomaline, “US scraps its $500million programme to train 'moderate' Syrian rebels after producing fewer than 80 soldiers, most of whom were either shot or ran away”

Daily mail, October 9, 2015

 

Alex Vatanka, “Iran and Russia, Growing Apart. Rising Dissent Over the IRGC's Militias”

Foreign Affairs, December 1, 2017

http://link.foreignaffairs.com/click/11441991.60976/aHR0cHM6Ly93d3cuZm9yZWlnbmFmZmFpcnMuY29tL2FydGljbGVzL3N5cmlhLzIwMTctMTEtMjkvaXJhbi1hbmQtcnVzc2lhLWdyb3dpbmctYXBhcnQ_Y2lkPW5sYy1mYV90d29mYS0yMDE3MTIwMQ/591db4112ddf9c3c420644fdC9b57006d

 

Daniel Wagner and Giorgio Cafiero, “Is the U.S. Losing Saudi Arabia to China?”

HuffPost. The World Post, --

https://www.huffingtonpost.com/daniel-wagner/is-the-us-losing-saudi-ar_b_4176729.html

 

Zakiyeh Yazdanshenas, “Iranian academics clash on how to deal with Trump”

Al-Monitor, October 30, 2017

http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2017/10/iran-academics-response-trump-hadian-izadi-tehran.html#ixzz4zfb4hw00

 

S. P. A. B. M. K. Yucel, “The Shale Gas and Tight Oil Boom: U.S. States’ Economic Gains and Vulnerabilities”

Council on Foreign Relations, 2013

http://www.cfr.org/united-states/shale-gas-tight-oil-boom-us-states-economic-gains-vulnerabilities/p31568.

 

Sarah Zheng, “China and Saudi Arabia to team up on US$20 billion investment fund. Project to bolster Beijing’s plans to expand its economic influence in the Middle East”

South China Morning Post, November 28, 2017

http://www.scmp.com/news/china/diplomacy-defence/article/2108175/china-and-saudi-arabia-team-us20-billion-investment

 

Sarah Zheng, “CEFC China Energy: the oil and gas deals it quietly snapped up overseas”

South China Morning Post, November 24, 2017

http://www.scmp.com/news/china/diplomacy-defence/article/2121155/cefc-china-energy-oil-and-gas-deals-it-quietly-snapped

 

--, “US President Donald Trump receives Saudi Arabia’s highest honour before US$350bn arms deal announced. White House officials hope the trip marks an opportunity for Trump to recalibrate after one of the most difficult stretches of his young presidency”

South China Morning Post, 20 May, 2017

http://www.scmp.com/news/world/middle-east/article/2095050/trump-lands-saudi-arabia-first-presidential-trip-overseas

 

--, “Dealmaker Trump launches salvo against Iran as he seeks ‘ultimate’ Middle East peace deal. Donald Trump’s journey has quickly plunged him into the fraught and complex politics of the Middle East”

South China Morning Post, 22 May, 2017

http://www.scmp.com/news/world/middle-east/article/2095261/trump-israel-seeks-ultimate-deal-peace-middle-east-may-prove

 

--, “Iran, Russia agree on ‘oil-for-goods’ deal”

Daily Sabah, May 25, 2017

https://www.dailysabah.com/economy/2017/05/25/iran-russia-agree-on-oil-for-goods-deal

 

--, “China's crude oil output will fall 7 percent by 2020 – government”

Reuters, January 17, 2017

https://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-energy/chinas-crude-oil-output-will-fall-7-percent-by-2020-government-idUSKBN15118K

 

--, “Beijing, Saudis agree to boost oil exports to China”

South China Morning Post, 18 March, 2017

http://www.scmp.com/news/china/diplomacy-defence/article/2080148/beijing-saudis-agree-boost-oil-exports-china

 

--, “China crude oil imports shatter record, top U.S. intake”

Reuters, April 13, 2017

https://www.reuters.com/article/china-economy-trade-crude/update-2-china-crude-oil-imports-shatter-record-top-u-s-intake-idUSL3N1HK1DG?rpc=401&

 

--, “China, Saudi Arabia agree to strengthen economic ties”

Xinhua, August 18, 2017

http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2017-08/18/c_136537484.htm

 

--, “Saudi Chinese Forum on Investment Kicks Off”

Saudi Press Agency, August 25 2017  

http://www.spa.gov.sa/viewstory.php?lang=en&newsid=1659890

 

--, “Backing for Iran is part of China’s delicate Middle East balancing act, say analysts. Beijing is supporting Tehran’s bid for formal membership of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation at Astana summit”

South China Morning Post, June 08, 2017

http://www.scmp.com/news/china/diplomacy-defence/article/2097503/backing-iran-part-chinas-delicate-middle-east-balancing

 

--, “China tells Iran that given the crisis with Qatar, stability in the Gulf is for the best”

South China Morning Post, June 12, 2017

http://www.scmp.com/news/china/diplomacy-defence/article/2097563/china-tells-iran-given-crisis-qatar-stability-gulf-best

 

--, “Syria Iraq: The Islamic State militant group”

BBC News, 2014

http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-24179084

 

--, “Battered by War, Iraq Now Faces Calamity From Dropping Oil Prices”

New York Times, January 31, 2016

 

--, “Abu Dhabi Crown Prince, Russia's Vladimir Putin to meet to discuss Syria”

Reuters, 2015 (on arabianbusiness.com)

 

--, “Khomeini Urges Export Of Iranian Revolution”

New York Times, October 15, 1981 (on UPI)